To freeze a moving thing clearly in your photograph you must simply use a shutter speed fast enough that the object will not have time to move noticeably while the shutter is open. As an example; if you were shooting some kids playing, running and jumping, a shutter duration of 1/500 of a second would probably be enough.
To freeze that golf ball that's just been launched by Fred Funk in the photograph below I used a shutter speed of 1/4000 of a second. I wasn't at all sure what I would need and I was told that asking Mr. Funk to do that again so I could try another exposure would be really bad. As you can see, the sun shone brightly so I could compensate for the lightning fast shutter speed with my f-stop and ISO.
Fred Funk at the 2011 Zurich classic, shot for the Fore Kids Foundation.